A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson EPUB & PDF – eBook Details Online
- Status: Available for Free Download
- Authors: Bill Bryson
- Publish Date: September 14, 2004
- Language: English
- Genre: Science & Scientists Humor
- Format: PDF
- Size: 3 MB
- Pages: 544
- Price: Free
- ISBN: 076790818X
HOW TO BUILD A
NO MATTER HOW hard you try you will never be
able to grasp just how tiny, how spatially unassuming, is
a proton. It is just way too small.
A proton is an infinitesimal part of an atom, which is
itself of course an insubstantial thing. Protons are so
small that a little dib of ink like the dot on thisi can hold
something in the region of 500,000,000,000 of them,
rather more than the number of seconds contained in half
a million years. So protons are exceedingly microscopic,
to say the very least.
Now imagine if you can (and of course you cant)
shrinking one of those protons down to a billionth of its
normal size into a space so small that it would make a
proton look enormous. Now pack into that tiny, tiny space
about an ounce of matter. Excellent. You are ready to start
I m assuming of course that you wish to build an
inflationary universe. If you d prefer instead to build a
more old-fashioned, standard Big Bang universe, you. Il
need additional materials. In fact, you will need to gather
up everything there is every last mote and particle of
matter between here and the edge of creation and squeeze
¡4 into a enot co infinitacimolly comnont thot it hoe no dimensions at all. It is known as a singularity.
In either case, get ready for a really big bang.
Naturally, you will wish to retire to a safe place to
observe the spectacle. Unfortunately, there is nowhere to
retire to because outside the singularity there is nowhere .
When the universe begins to expand, it wont be
spreading out to fill a larger emptiness. The only space
that exists is the space it creates as it goes.
It is natural but wrong to visualize the singularity as
a kind of pregnant dot hanging in a dark, boundless void.
But there is no space, no darkness. The singularity has no – around around it. There is no space for it to occupy,
no place for it to be. We canet even ask how long it has
been there @ whether it has just lately popped into being,
like a good idea, or whether it has been there forever,
quietly awaiting the right moment. Time doesnt exist.
There is no past for it to emerge from.
And so, from nothing, our universe begins.
In a single blinding pulse, a moment of glory much
too swift and expansive for any form of words, the
singularity assumes heavenly dimensions, space beyond
conception. In the first lively second (a second that many
cosmologists will devote careers to shaving into ever-
finer wafers) is produced gravity and the other forces that
In less than a minute the universe is a
million billion miles across and growing fast. There is a
lot of heat now, ten billion degrees of it, enough to begin
the nuclear reactions that create the lighter
elements& principally hydrogen and helium, with a dash
(about one atom in a hundred million) of lithium. In three
minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever
be has been produced. We have a universe. It is a place of
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